5G technology has a variety of technical terms, each representing a part of the network’s specifications, and familiarity with these terms is not without its pitfalls.
Today, most lovers of the tech world are seriously looking for 5G technology development news and consider it important in the future of all important and vital industries. Of course, the outbreak of the Coronavirus epidemic and its crises have not stopped the development of technology, and the implementation of 5G infrastructure is underway at a significant pace; As a result, it can be predicted that in the not-too-distant future, the new generation of telecommunications will become a common technology among the people.
5G technology has several technical terms that show the details and capabilities of its various sections, and it will be interesting for users to get acquainted with these terms. However, once you have a general understanding of the common term technology, you’ll be more aware of everyday usage. In the rest of this article, we will look at the meaning of the term phrases that have been developed about 5G technology.
Before describing the meanings and terms of the fifth generation of telecommunications, it is not bad to look again at the current generation. 4G, or the fourth generation of mobile communication, is now recognized as the most common type of mobile data connection. The technology was introduced in 2010. The third generation or 3G was introduced with a focus on improving voice calls and messaging; But for the first time, 4G focused on data connectivity, aiming to increase speed and provide faster connection than conventional home bandwidth connections. This focus on data speeds has given rise to a new economy around Internet-based applications. Popular services like Uber were the culmination of a 4G connection. Other achievements of 4G include the rise of other online services such as live streaming and heavy online gaming.
As you know, the fifth generation of mobile wireless technology is known as 5G. If 4G was focused on increasing speed, 5G would try to multiply the current speed, and it would be possible to connect more devices using it. Improving the quality of telecommunication connections and providing various speeds depending on the needs of gadgets connected to the network are other achievements of 5G. For example, a smartphone connected to a 5G network needs a lot of bandwidth to do things like play online or live streaming. While the ATM does not require a lot of bandwidth, only a permanent connection is important.
Adding NR to 5G indicates its standard. NR or New Radio doesn’t need much explanation, and all you need to know is the NR standard, according to which the entire wireless service industry operates. The importance of the standard there is that it puts everyone on an all-rounder in 5G development. Operators such as AT&T and T-Mobile today follow 5G NR. Another well-known operator, Verizon, had started developing and implementing 5G before developing the standard; For this reason, it did not initially follow 5G NR; But now it has coordinated all its extensive Internet replacement processes and mobile network with NR.
Since almost all industry activists use the same standard, you probably don’t see the term NR as much as 5G in articles and news. However, 5G NR is known as the common grounding technology for 5G development.
If we consider speed as the most popular advantage of the new network, according to many experts, the reduction in latency will be the future of technology, where many innovations will certainly take place. Delay can be considered as a lag that occurs when you click on a link or shoot in an online game. Ping, or the time interval between sending data to the server and receiving a response, is also improved by reducing the delay. Definitely, in online conversations, you will notice a delay in sending and receiving messages. This time occurs due to the physical displacement that the signals experience.
Delays in current networks are reported to be at least 20 milliseconds. This may seem like a small amount of time; But it will definitely be effective in events where you need a quick response. For example, an online gamer in a sensitive game such as Fortnite tends to associate each activity with a quick character response. Experts claim that with the 5G becoming more widespread, the delay time will be reduced to one millisecond. However, delays in connecting people and servers over long distances will still be a problem.
Spectrum can be considered a vital part of the wireless service industry. Just as radio waves can send and receive signals on radio networks, they are also used to connect mobile data. Of course, you don’t need to set a wave on your smartphone to receive a data signal; Because the smartphone is automatically set to work at the right frequency. Wireless service operators transmit data over the air using a wave spectrum. They have made significant improvements over the course of their careers, and the use of spectra is becoming more and more efficient.
Wireless service operators have their own range on 3G and 4G networks, and all of them are trying to get a wider range for 5G. In general, the higher the bandwidth or frequency, the faster it will be available to the operator. Of course, increasing the frequency is accompanied by a decrease in access range, and the optimal value must be selected. Conversely, by reducing the frequency range, you will have greater access; But the maximum speed available is reduced.
The term “millimeter wave” is one of the high-frequency wavelengths ranging from 24 to 100 GHz. Whenever you hear news and information about the 5G connection’s high speed, the connection is probably in this wavelength range. One of the problems with high frequency wavelengths, in addition to short coverage, is its great elegance and sensitivity; Even the smallest disturbances interfere with the operation of this connection. Companies such as Verizon are trying to solve the problems of the millimeter wave spectrum with software solutions. Finally, the millimeter wave spectrum can be thought of as very fast Wi-Fi connections that are only used indoors and do not cover a large area.
For years, operators have been using low bandwidth to run 3G and 4G networks. For example, the bulk of the 4G network operates on the 700 MHz band. Industry activists like low-bandwidth spectrums more than other wavelengths; Because it has the ability to access very far distances and cross obstacles such as walls. Distance access at low bandwidth is associated with weaknesses. For example, if we consider the millimeter wave in a direction with a large bandwidth tube, the lower band spectrum is on the opposite side, which provides the maximum limited speed to the end user.
The middle band spectrum, as its name implies, lies between the two previous bands. This gang is known as a balanced and excellent choice; Because it provides the user with a combination of speed and the appropriate coverage area. Today, most international operators use the middle band spectrum. US operators do not have access to this range of airwaves; As a result, they decided to invest in faster millimetre band technology.\
In the United States, only T-Mobile has access to the mid-range 2.5 GHz, which it bought from Sprint. In fact, this range was one of the reasons that encouraged T-Mobile to buy a competitor. No spectrum band can be considered completely superior to others, and operators know that they need all three bands to provide a variety of services.
The term is commonly used to describe lower and middle bands. When some pioneering operators were testing millimeter bands, the term Sub-6 was coined to describe the use of current (middle and lower) spectra to implement 5G connectivity.
The American operator AT&T has a term called 5G E, abbreviated to 5G Evolution, which is the company’s upgraded version of 4G LTE and is in the process of developing 5G. The term, coined by the American operator, has been used many times in smartphones since the beginning of 2019. This approach has left some consumers confused and confused about the capabilities of the smartphone; As some thought, they have a full 5G connection on the smartphone. In fact, the 5G E is quite different from the 5G, and many users have complained about the AT&T for ambiguity.
The term AT&T used to describe its 4G connection also led to complaints from competitors. Sprint sued AT&T for the same term, which apparently was resolved. Various organizations have also called on the company to stop using the term 5G E; However, its icon can still be seen on smartphones purchased from the operator. In the end, the American company even felt proud of the birth of the ambiguous term; But today, everyone knows that 5G E is a long way from 5G, despite offering more speed.
5G Plus or 5G UW or 5GB UWB
These are the terms used by operators to specify a 5G connection in the millimetre range. Variety and AT&T each have their own technical term, which may confuse users despite the separation of specific marketing services and applications for the companies themselves.
Dynamic Spectrum Sharing allows the operator to use the current spectrum used for 4G for the fifth generation of telecommunications. If you think of a wireless network as a multi-line freeway, DSS allows the operator to assign various lines to 4G or 5G when using communication generations.
DSS allows operators such as AT&T and Verizon, which do not have a sufficient range of bandwidth in the middle and lower bands, to provide users with a variety of 5G connections. Finally, while the technology is helping T-Mobile, they gained a lot of ground and low bandwidth by buying Sprint in April.
This phrase, which is a summary of 5G Standalone, does not require a 4G LTE network as an operational backup. Such a connection is also known as a “real 5G” and certainly has a lower latency and a higher speed for the operator.
This is a phrase that contrasts with the previous term (5G non-standalone) and uses 4G support to provide a new generation of communication. By using the existing network, operators can provide new services and improvements to the current devices connected to the network.
Traditional cellular communication coverage was possible using massive telecommunication towers on which several radios and antennas were installed. These antennas can send signals over long distances; As a result, telecommunications infrastructure companies will not need to install and use a large number of them. Small Cell is on the other side of the aisle, and as the name implies, we’re dealing with small telecommunications cells. These small radios are the size of backpacks and can be installed in a variety of locations, from street lamps to poles and columns, and even on the roofs of homes.
New cells can send signals to limited distances due to their small size, and a large number of cells must be present in the network to take advantage of their communication capability. Some cities use small cells to implement the telecommunications network; But outside the city, small cells will be problematic.
The term MIMO stands for Multiple Input Multiple Output. In general, the meaning of the phrase can be interpreted by adding more antennas to smartphones and telecommunication cell towers. Adding an antenna will not be a difficult process for manufacturers, and tech companies are considering a technology called 4×4 MIMO to use four antennas on a smartphone.
Wireless service operators can combine several radio frequency bands; As a result, smartphones will be able to choose the fastest and most secluded band to connect. This concept can be likened to the freeway, where cars choose one to drive depending on the privacy of the lanes. The term dual frequency is also used to describe the term.
It is a technical term used to denote Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. The term has complex specialized explanations that do not fit into the present article. As a user, we only need to know that QAM makes it possible to move traffic faster than in the previous two technologies. Recall the example of the freeway. Instead of using small cars to move data, you can use trailers with significant capacity using a concept such as 255QAM. The last three terms are still used in 4G networks; But in 5G, they will play a more vital and important role.
LTE Advanced or Gigabit LTE
In short, Gigabit LTE can be considered a prerequisite for 5G. This type of network provides faster connection than conventional 4G; But it needs 5G infrastructure. Hardware such as Qualcomm’s X24 data modem is capable of using Carrier Aggregation and other technologies to maximize download speeds of up to two gigabytes per second. Such a download speed will be enough to get a full season of the series in eight seconds! In the real world, however, the Gigabit LTE offers a download speed of 200 to 600 Mbps, which is still faster than the usual 4G download speed (100 to 300 Mbps). As mentioned, the ATGT’s 5G E connection was a kind of Gigabit LTE.
This phrase indicates the method used to direct 5G signals in a particular direction. Using this technology, you can get the specific connection you need. For example, using the same technology, Verizon solves problems such as crossing obstacles such as walls in its millimetre grid.
Cellular telecommunications networks all use the concept of a licensed spectrum, and to use any spectrum, you have to buy it from the government. As the fifth generation of network implementation peaked, companies came to the conclusion that they did not have a sufficiently licensed range for adequate coverage. Today, operators also use spectrums outside the state licensing system to implement their networks.
These spectra can be used for public radio waves, according to which WiFi networks operate. Such a practice, of course, is accompanied by criticism; Because, in principle, non-licensed ranges are less than the ones under control and protection.
This term refers to the operator’s ability to use certain sections of the wave spectrum that are used to provide proper connection to all devices on the network. For example, a telecommunications tower can use a shear technology to provide a less powerful and faster connection to the IoT sensor and, at the same time, a slower connection to a nearby self-driving car.
The terms mentioned in this article are common terms used to describe the specifications and capabilities of a 5G network. There are certainly many other technical terms that network professionals use to develop technology. Familiarizing ordinary users with common terms can be helpful in choosing the communication network and equipment connected to the fifth generation of telecommunication